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Where does tourism go? Reflecting on the duality of landscape and tourism

 

Thomas Doxiadis + Dioysia Liveri + Chrysi Gkolemi

1. The landscape as the fundamental resource for the development and competitiveness of tourism. / Why protect the Greek landscapes  

1.1. The Greek Landscape and Tourism 

1.1.1. The peculiarity of the Greek territory 

Greece is part of the Mediterranean biogeographical zone and has a wide variety of habitat types. The territory of Greece presents a unique diversity of landscapes, reflected in the amount of different landscape typologies -natural and anthropogenic- encountered per region. The number of types of ecosystems, both natural and man-made, and their arrangement in space, determine the nature and physiognomy of the landscape.

The combination of Greek culture and the Greek landscape reveals the peculiarity of the Landscape in Greece: The place, densely loaded with mythological elements and historical events, is - in the broader cultural sense – an admired monumental ensemble. The tourist movement from central and western Europe to Greece has always been fed by the admiration of both the ancient civilisation and the distinct landscape of the Mediterranean and especially of Greece.

Figura 1.  Paisajes griegos. Fotos: Thomas Doxiadis.   

   

   

   

Figure 1. Greek landscapes (photos: Thomas Doxiadis) 

1.1.2 Historical background and modern trends: The development of tourism in Greece

Apart from the peculiarities of the Greek landscape, which act as attraction elements, the use and approach of the landscape in Greece is clearly influenced by the spiritual tendencies that have prevailed since the beginning of the 19th century in Western Europe and North America. According to these, the landscape, especially the natural one, is now an independent value which is attributed the almost metaphysical power of revitalisation of the contemporary city-dweller.

Figura 2. Carteles promocionales del turismo en Grecia de los años 60 de la EOT – Organización Griega del Turismo. Fuente: lifo.         

          
Figure 2. Posters promoting Greek tourism in the ‘60s by EOT – Greek Tourism Organization (source: lifo) 

In contrast to the rapid upgrading of industrial society, both in social and economic terms, as well as in the position of power or spiritual sovereignty, Romanticism expresses the questioning of developments that lead to the intensification of life, social upheaval, and the dismantling of traditional urban centres due to uncontrolled industrial development. The depiction of "romantic" landscapes acquires the meaning of the lost relationship with nature and the balance that (presumably) prevailed in the past.

With rapid economic growth, the demands of the urban population for recreation and action are growing. Now linked to virtually unlimited transport and communication capabilities - private transport, telecommunications -, the urban crowds reveal the experience of landscape and freedom. This trend is already reflected in the commercialisation of the landscape in the ‘20s - winter tourism -, although in Greece it especially manifests itself in the ‘60s, with the mass tourist industry of sun and beach.

Today, trends in the global tourism market show a preference towards tourism forms involving “special” or “alternative” tourism activities.

The majority of these types of tourism show great to total dependence on landscape. This is clearly the case for alternative types of tourism, central to the economies of special or alternative destinations. The Location Brand of these special tourism destinations is built according to the types of activities offered.The majority of Mediterranean tourism destinations and their respective brands greatly or totally depend upon landscape, since most of them are predominantly natural with a strongly traditional character. Mediterranean landscapes constitute a major expression of local identity, and as part of tourism destinations, a major economic resource.

The following table (Figure 3) summarises the degree of dependence on landscape of the various tourism forms:

Figura 3: Dependencia del paisaje por tipología turística. Autor: KRITIAS S.A. – Thomas Doxiadis, 2007.
Figure 3. Dependence on landscape by tourism typology (KRITIAS S.A. – Thomas Doxiadis, 2007) 

1.2. Location Branding 

The European Landscape Convention provides the following definition of landscape: ‘"Landscape" means an area, as perceived by people, whose character is the result of the action and interaction of natural and/or human factors’ (1). In creating and selling a location brand, more often than not, tourism depends on this perception of a location: the physical and cultural aspects, the way they come together and constitute a totality through landscape, and the way that totality is perceived.

More than perception, the landscape is also the physical space on which tourist uses and activities – whether hotels and resorts or beaches and mountains – take place. As such, the landscape is changed by those activities, often by harming the very perception which tourism is trying to sell. This feedback loop between tourism and landscape can be positive or negative, but the interrelation cannot be ignored.

1.2.1 The Local Landscape as a factor for diversification of touristic product

The development of individual tourist destinations is a complex process that combines local conditions and values themselves, and promote them through effective location branding. Landscape is a key component of location branding, both directly and indirectly.

Figura 4: Recursos turísticos locales y su relación con el paisaje. Autor: KRITIAS S.A. – Thomas Doxiadis, 2007
Figure 4. Local tourism resources and landscape relationship (KRITIAS S.A. – Thomas Doxiadis, 2007)

The landscape contributes to the creation of the local name of a place and the importance of the tourist development of a place in relation to it. The study ‘Developing an Action Plan to Promote Special Tourism Destinations’ (2) analyses the role of landscape in forging a Location Brand, and the brand's importance in boosting tourism development. With the term Location Brand, the study describes “the (desired) connection at brand level between the name of a place and destination, the (identifiable) physical and material characteristics of the place, the historical and cultural values it carries, its location and its landscape, and consequently its identifiable tourist resources, local products (agricultural, handicraft, etc.) and services as well as special activities” that can be integrated in the place.

The steps to take in order to achieve a successful location branding begin with studying and understanding the local resources that form the characteristic unique landscape of each place; Giving special importance to the educating of the people and local agents on the significance of the protection and promotion of these resources. And finally, seconding local initiatives in order to create a strong brand name for the place, that can promote a healthy integrated touristic development and support local growth.

1.3. Case study: The lack of landscape policy and its results on mature tourist destinations.

Failure to implement the above leads to mature touristic destinations. These are places that, due to lack of sustainable programming and planning, have reached a point of saturation, exhausting all the landscape resources and resulting to irreparable damage to the main product of the destination - the landscape - and, as a result, to declining of the touristic product itself.

This fact is particularly felt in the Northwest Mediterranean coast where local communities are now trying to reverse the damages, as well as in overdeveloped destinations in France, Italy, Greece and Turkey. Mass tourism facilities grew out of control, leading to economic decline and environmental degradation. The location's brand name remains one linked to mass, sun-and-beach tourism. This tourism model has a number of significant disadvantages including seasonality, nonsensical construction of tourism facilities, the rise in out-of-season unemployment levels and a sense of decadence of the landscape over the winter months.

1.3.1 The example of Playa de Palma, Mallorca, Spain

Mallorca, Platja de Palma. One of the first tourism resorts developed in Spain, resulting in an aged and exhausted landscape as well as tourism offering. The territory of the place is severely fractured due to abrupt introduction of the infrastructure that supports this tourism development. The road network cuts the valley in half, completely disconnecting the beach and touristic area - once sand dunes - from the rear agricultural territory. The high construction pressure has lead to drying up of the wetland and blocking of the streams. The forms of the once rich landscape that originated the introduction of tourism, are no longer legible under this saturated development.

Figura 5. Plano de diagnóstico de Platja de Palma. Autores: Acevedo, Luis – Coffré, María – Gkolemi, Chrysi (2016)
Figure 5. Diagnostic plan of Platja de Palma (Acevedo Luis - Coffré Javiera - Fandiño María - Gkolemi Chrysi, 2016)

The project ‘Entre dos Mares. De la Resistencia a la resiliencia’ (3) seeks the regeneration of the area, as well as its reconnection to the Prat -the agriculture land- and its settlements. The natural dynamics that rule this territory are largely based on water. Abrupt cutting of these dynamic movements has resulted in serious inundation problems and detachment from the landscape’s identity.

Figura 6. Regeneración de humedales. Autores: Acevedo, Luis – Coffré, María – Gkolemi, Chrysi (2016)
Figure 6. Wetland regeneration (Acevedo Luis - Coffré Javiera - Fandiño María - Gkolemi Chrysi, 2016)

The project is based on the recovery of these dynamics of the water, in order to solve territorial problems, regenerate tourist offer and rediscover the identity of Platja de Palma and the Prat. Thus, the recreation of the once existing wetland is proposed. Meanwhile, the reinforcement of the different identities found in the two seemingly uniform landscapes -sea and agriculture- is achieved through the settling of tourist modules that manage the territory, respecting settlement typologies and introducing place-related tourism. On the seafront, in the dense urban area, the removal of certain hotels is proposed, considering the regeneration of the water circle. The re-settling of these tourist modules is proposed in ways that reinforce the character of the original settlement and allow the connection to the territory.

Figura 7. Entre dos mares: propuesta de regeneración para Platja de Palma y el Prat. Autores: Acevedo, Luis – Coffré, María – Gkolemi, Chrysi (2016)
Figure 7. Between Two Seas: Regeneration proposal for Platja de Palma and the Prat (Acevedo Luis - Coffré Javiera - Fandiño María - Gkolemi Chrysi, 2016)

1.3.2 The example of Corfu, Greece

In the rest of the Mediterranean, and especially in the southern and eastern parts, the littoral is still relatively pristine, but remains under great pressure for development. Unfortunately, despite the visible negative results and the many efforts and studies, in Greece there still exists no integrated legal framework for the protection and nurturing of the landscape today. Fragmentary legislations and decrees do not succeed in preventing the damage. They are being abused in a hurry, because there are no adequate control and enforcement mechanisms, and because the local community is not convinced of the need for protection.

In the context of the study mentioned above by KRITIAS S.A. and Thomas Doxiadis, the municipality of Corfu has been studied as an example of a Greek mature tourism destination. The place was carefully assessed, recognizing the key features of the Corfu landscape, examining the regional and local development planning and studying the history of participatory initiatives on issues of landscape protection and use of resources for the development of new tourist products.

The study discovered that despite initiatives, the touristic destination is suffering a recess, due to failure of coordination between the local agents, which leads to fragmented actions and incorrect management of the landscape. Through participatory processes, the group proposed measures that will achieve a revitalization of the tourism offering in Corfu, by recognizing and valorizing the local resources and promoting local initiatives, under the umbrella of a Landscape Plan that will set the base for the protection and management of the landscape of Corfu.

     Figuras 8 y 9. A la izquierda, límites administrativos del Municipio de Corfú (KRITIAS S.A. – Thomas Doxiadis, 2007). A la derecha, Vista del centro histórico desde la Nueva Fortaleza, Interreg IIIB ArchiMed Program    
Figures 8 and 9. On the left, Administrative boundaries of the Municipality of Corfu (KRITIAS S.A. – Thomas Doxiadis, 2007). On the right, View of the Historic Center from the New Fortress, Interreg IIIB ArchiMed Program "Eastern Mediterranean Cultural Network" 2006-2007 (KRITIAS S.A. – Thomas Doxiadis, 2007)

2. Tourism as the fundamental practice for the protection and regeneration of the landscape. / How to protect the Greek landscapes

2.1. Living landscapes: The importance of use and evolution in the identity and survival of a landscape

Trends in the modern economy and society are changing, and with them so do the living conditions. A common consequence of these - often violent - changes is the death of the landscapes, due to abandonment, exhaustion or failure to adapt. Like any system or organism, a landscape can survive in time and achieve resiliency only by being sustainable; and sustainability can only be achieved by activating the landscape through appropriate land use. A landscape - and mainly a cultural territory, like the majority of Greek landscapes - is fully dependent on its uses. Its survival depends on its ability to adapt to the new circumstances, evolving its identity.

Greek landscapes were created and have since formed their identity throughout the years on the basis of agricultural economy and the rural way of life. This, in combination with the natural characteristics of the place - topography, water scarcity, low soil fertility - has granted the Greek countryside its distinctive image. These characteristic landscapes, brand image of Greece and Greek tourism, are facing extinction, due to shift in the local economy, causing abandonment, exhaustion, or irreparable damage to their identity.

Nevertheless, it is this same shift in economy that can provide the solution for these threatened landscapes. Landscapes can - and ought to - reinvent their identity by smoothly adapting to the new economy and land use circumstances. More specifically, Greek landscapes have the opportunity to reinvent themselves through the proper introduction of (the land use of) tourism.

As already noted, landscape is the backbone of local identity and brand name for the majority of Greek destinations. Either as a natural landscape or as a cultural one, and usually a combination of both, it incorporates and organises the comparative advantages of each site (sights, destinations, buildings, views, agricultural production, etc.). Nevertheless, it can also constitute destination and comparative advantage itself, if it enjoys good management and communication.

    Figuras 10 y 11. A la izquierda, análisis visual del paisaje de Pylos (doxiadis+, 2008). A la derecha, tipologías paisajísticas del área de Pylos (doxiadis+, 2008).   
Figures 10 and 11. On the left, Visual analysis of the landscape of Pylos (doxiadis+, 2008). On the right, Landscape typologies in the area of Pylos (doxiadis+, 2008)

It has already been mentioned that tourism has, as a matter of fact, historically been part of the Greek landscapes and their myth. From Xenios Zeus of ancient Greece - deity for the protection of the visitor - to the Grand Tour - late 17th to early 19th century - and the invention of tourism, Greece has always been a destination for various types of tourism - cultural, religious, health, athletic - that have traditionally had a powerful connection to the landscape.  Today, tourism is the major industry in Greece, with significant interdependence with the territory and the landscape. 

More often than not this interdependence is used in order to promote tourism. Landscapes are usually treated as the background on which touristic activities can develop, or as the brand image for bucolic vacation branding. The results of this one-way exploitation have already been described, with often irreversible reverberations on the landscapes of tourism, and therefore the decline of the touristic destinations themselves. 

The newest approach to this subject is to look at this equation backwards. It involves activating tourism in order to regenerate these same landscapes. The key is smoothly introducing tourism as a complementary activity to the already existing uses of the landscape; giving the adequate thrust for the developing and evolution of the place. Naturally, such actions should always be preceded by a legal framework, ensuring correct management, with the aim of preserving the main elements of the landscape identity as well as the smooth and respectful introduction of the new use.

Figura 12. Dinámicas de expansión de la ciudad de Pylos (doxiadis+, 2008)
Figure 12. Expansion dynamics for the town of Pylos (doxiadis+, 2008)

2.2. Cultural Landscapes and Heritage Parks

Cultural landscapes (4) are the most critical category of landscape protection, because of the dense information they provide about their history and the layers of activity that can be read in their forms. Their hybrid character between natural and anthropogenic creates interesting complex relationships, projected on simple efficient structures. Additionally, they hold great importance to the survival of local communities, as they form inherent part of the everyday life and the identity of the people.

Figura 13. Paisajes culturales de Serifos. Fotos: doxiadis+.      
Figure 13. Cultural landscapes of Serifos (photos: doxiadis+)

Landscape areas of particular beauty and traditional areas are both types of cultural landscapes very common in Greece. They require high protection as a whole and as a tourism asset. In some cases (national parks, traditional settlements) there is already protection. However, this regime is usually inadequate, as in the case of the traditional settlements, where the buildings are protected but not the landscape, which is an integral part of the history, function and image of the settlement. On the contrary, there are cases where an enhanced protection regime within the settlement pushes growth pressures on to the surrounding landscape, which is being destroyed.

The result of this inefficiency and fragmentation is the death not only of these beautiful, rich, educational landscapes, but also of the communities linked to them. It is therefore of vital importance to promote the integrated development programming that would deal with the sustainable regeneration of these landscapes as a whole, making use of the cultural resources, assisting in the development of the local community.

Figura 14. Propuestas de regeneración del paisaje de Pylos (doxiadis+, 2008)   
Figure 14. Regeneration proposals for the landscape of Pylos (doxiadis+, 2008)

One of the most innovative and successful techniques for promoting a cultural landscape is the creation of a Heritage Park (5). It involves creating sustainable, dynamic landscapes, with strong identity and adaptability. Based entirely on local resources, it is closely linked to the community and guarantees its growth. The introduction of tourism is one of the key actions in the development of a Heritage Park. Other key characteristics of these Parks are the powerful location branding - directly linked to the landscape - and the bottom-up initiative - involvement of people and local factors to the development plan of the place.

2.2.1 The example of Kampos, Chios, Greece

A traditional settlement on the island of Chíos, Kampos is a community of agro-residential identity located on the southern outskirts of the city of Chíos, with a rich heritage of seven centuries. It constitutes a unique model of coexistence of the vacation residence with the agricultural production. Today Kampos is a threatened landscape. Land division, lack of water, abandonment of the mansions and low profitability of the crops are the main factors of its declining. Kampos is clearly a cultural landscape in urgent need of protection.

Figura 15. Abandono en Kampos. Fotos: Chrysi Gkolemi, 2016.      
Figure 15. Abandonment in Kampos (photos: Chrysi Gkolemi. Chrysi Gkolemi, 2016)

The research ‘Memorias Vivas. Del monumento al paisaje cultural: el ejemplo de Kampos Chios’ (6) aims to raise awareness on the threatened cultural landscape of Kampos. It highlights the heritage values of the landscape of Kampos, recognizes the risks and opportunities that exist in the site and reflects on the forms of action and development of the whole and its community. It further intends to prove that the best way to protect a landscape is by revitalizing the cultural heritage, instead of monumentalising and fossilizing it.

Figura 16. El asentamiento tradicional de Kampos. Flujos y estructura (Chrysi Gkolemi, 2016)
Figure 16. The traditional settlement of Kampos. Flows and structure (Chrysi Gkolemi, 2016)

Through the analysis of the structure, the modules and forms of the landscape, the research reveals that tourism has always been an integral part of the identity of Kampos. What is more, the decline is largely due to the elimination of this land use from the settlement’s structure.  The second main reason for the degeneration recognized, is the loss of connection of the people to their land; leading to indifference, abandonment and cultural degradation. A model tourist route is proposed as an application study, in order to test the findings of the research.

The implementation of a comprehensive development plan is finally proposed, a project for the landscape as a whole, with the aim of converting Kampos into a Heritage Park; a communicative place, capable of putting its resources at the service of the local community, in order to achieve a holistic and sustainable development. There are two guidelines proposed for this plan for the development of Kampos. The first is the boost of agricultural production, in order to safeguard the character of Kampos, and the second is the (re-)introduction of cultural tourism, that will enhance growth while respecting the territory. In addition, the final suggestion is that the central element of this territorial planning must be the people of Kampos. Producers and inhabitants have to be the basis of all initiatives, involved in the planning process actively, in order for the regeneration to be successful.

Figura 17. Focos visuales y recursos culturales en un modelo de tuta de paisaje (Chrysi Gkolemi, 2016)
Figure 17. Visual cues and cultural resources in a model landscape route (Chrysi Gkolemi, 2016)

2.3. Vacation Housing Landscapes

As already mentioned, land uses in the Greek territory are in transition presently. The collapse of the traditional rural economy rendered inoperative most of the processes that shaped and conserved the historical (anthropogenic) landscapes of Greece. The immediate result is the disappearance of many key elements, from terraces, threshing floors and public spaces, to animals, crops and people themselves that are part of a historical landscape. An indirect effect is the – already analyzed - invasion of new economic activities and land uses related to tourism, vacation housing and the modern infrastructure relating to them. The above form the main force of change of the landscape of Greece nowadays.

As a matter of fact, the newest landscape typology in the Greek countryside is the out-of-town-plan construction, which mainly serves tourism and vacation housing. Although "traditional" in terms of the morphological elements of buildings, this is a purely suburban typology that completely alters the image and identity of the landscape. It produces significant change to the scale of the elements and their relationship to the landscape. The historical form and structure of the Greek countryside, based on compact settlements within a landscape otherwise free of housing, has now been transformed into a landscape of structures. The fact that many of these regions are protected by a special decree does not noticeably diminish the effects of this dynamic. The rules of “imposing” traditional architectural styles fail to achieve satisfactory results, especially in terms of integration into the landscape.

Figura 18. Puerto de la isla de Serifos. Foto: doxiadis+
Figure 18. The port of Serifos island (photo: doxiadis+)

The new infrastructure that appears is mainly part of the new tourism economy and the vacation houses and tourist accommodations that it serves. Provision of road, electricity and lighting networks, dams, ports, waste disposal sites, etc., without accounting for the mutations that these infrastructures will bring, not only changes the character of the place but also interrupts the dynamic flows of the natural landscape, threatening its very survival.

Nevertheless, the change of land use is part of the very same dynamics of the place, and an important factor to the survival of the landscapes. The inevitable decline of the traditional agricultural economy results in abandonment, loss of identity and disturbance in the biodiversity of the system, unless succeeded by a new economy. More specifically, some of the results of abandonment for the traditional Greek landscape of agricultural terraces -“pezoules”- include: erosion, poor soil conditions, floods, loss of natural patchwork, fire risk, and reduction of biodiversity.

The key solution therefore for the Greek territory is to make good use of the developing tourism economy, putting in use its revitalizing capacity for the landscape, and diminishing the negative effects of this new land use. Inventive and sensitive techniques are in order, based on a wide database as well as a comprehensive study of each place, while supported by a legal framework that orientates every action.

Figura 19. Evaluación paisajística de la isla de Serifos (KRITIAS S.A. – Thomas Doxiadis, 2007)
Figure 19. Landscape assessment of Serifos island (KRITIAS S.A. – Thomas Doxiadis, 2007)
Figura 20. Regeneración dinámica del paisaje en la playa de Varkiza (doxiadis+, 2008-2009)
Figure 20. Dynamic landscape regeneration in Varkiza beach (doxiadis+, 2008-2009)

2.3.1 The example of Antiparos, Greece

The unique landscape of the Aegean archipelago is a historical synthesis of natural and cultural forms and processes. With millennia of history, these beautiful landscapes are now experiencing widespread disturbances, as the tourism economy replaces traditional farming and grazing. Unfortunately, the forms that the new economy imposes on the landscape are not intelligently designed, resulting in the new uses destroying the very beauty they are trying to sell.

Figura 21. Patrones existentes de vegetación. Foto: Clive Nichols.
Figure 21. Existing vegetation patterns (photo: Clive Nichols)

The award-winning work “Landscapes of Cohabitation” by doxiadis+ creates a new condition in the historic landscape of Antiparos island. In search for the new balances required by modern uses, the work reverses the disastrous tendencies, suggesting a new composition between the old and the new. It develops a new model for tourism and vacation housing, a model of living with the historical landscape instead of replacing it.

In order to achieve this new synthesis, the design acted on two fronts: On a large scale, it recognized the historical structures of the terraces –pezoules-, the dry stone walls –xerolithies-, the topography, the streams and the vegetation, and expanded these structures to incorporate within them all the elements that typically sculpt the landscape, such as roads, parking spaces, swimming pools and new plantings. For example, while modern roads are usually shaped in the form of zigzag, hurting the hills, here they follow either the form of the terraces or the stone walls, fully embedded in the landscape.

On the small scale, addressing the need to create a truly vibrant Cycladic landscape, with active natural processes and respectful to the changing of seasons, the team developed an internationally leading planting technique: it combined new planting structures, resulting from analysis of the natural plant communities, with a strategy of different planting densities. As a result, the planted and irrigated plants are condensed near the houses, and gradually thin out towards the landscape, allowing the natural revegetation to create new and dynamic links between the new and the old, the man-made and the natural.

Figura 22. Incorporación al paisaje histórico (doxiadis+, 2000-2007)
Figure 22. Incorporation within the historical landscape (doxiadis+, 2000-2007)
Figura 23. Estrategia vegetal de transición (doxiadis+, 2000-2007)
Figure 23. Transition strategy planting (doxiadis+, 2000-2007)
Figura 24. Paisajes simbiçoticos (doxiadis+, 2000-2007). Fotos: Clive Nichols, Thomas Doxiadis.   
Figure 24. Symbiotic landscapes (doxiadis+, 2000-2007. Photos: Clive Nichols, Thomas Doxiadis)

3. Conclusions

Tourism, destinations, and branding are inextricably tied in with the local landscape.  While this relationship has led to negative loops as development spoils the very landscape resource it is selling, new thinking exists both in managing the landscapes of tourism and in selling them. This new thinking involves studying and assessing the landscape; understanding its role in the local destination brand; formulating strategies that protect or enhance this role; designing projects that integrate into the existing landscape rather than degrading it; removing past elements which degrade the landscape; developing location brands that recognise and enhance this relationship to the landscape; and providing the institutional framework to ensure that the feedback loop between tourism and landscape becomes a positive one.

4. Notas

(1) Council of Europe. The European Landscape Convention. Florence, 2000.

(2) KRITIAS S.A., doxiadis+. Developing an Action Plan to Promote Special Tourism Destinations. The study was commissioned by the Greek Ministry of Tourism Development. Researchers:  KRITIAS A.E., Doxiadis Thomas, Bofilias Alexandros, Charalabous Alexandros, Liveri Dionysia. 2007

(3) Acevedo Luis, Coffré Javiera, Fandiño María, Gkolemi Chrysi. Entre dos Mares. De la Resistencia a la resiliencia. The project was developed within the framework of Master in Landscape Architecture (MAP), UPC, Barcelona Spain. May 2016.

(4) The term cultural landscape is officially recognised in 1992 in the World Heritage Convention as the “cultural properties [that] represent the combined works of nature and of man”. Earlier, in 1925 geographer Carl Sauer provides in his dissertation the first definition of cultural landscapes: “The cultural landscape is fashioned from a natural landscape by a cultural group. Culture is the agent, the natural area is the medium, the cultural landscape is the result”.

(5) The article refers to Heritage Park - Parque Patrimonial - as defined by Joaquin Sabaté Bel in his article ‘Paisajes Culturales. El patrimonio como recurso básico para un nuevo modelo de desarrollo’. Sabaté says: “The project of a heritage park implies guaranteeing a certain cultural landscape the preservation of its patrimonial resources and, at the same time, putting them to the service of the economic reactivation of the region.”

(6) Gkolemi Chrysi. Memorias Vivas. Del monumento al paisaje cultural: el ejemplo de Kampos Chios. Master Thesis. The study was developed within the framework of Master in Landscape Architecture (MAP), UPC, Barcelona Spain. December 2016.

5. Bibliography

5.1. Projects - Studies

Acevedo Luis, Coffré Javiera, Fandiño María, Gkolemi Chrysi. Entre dos Mares. De la Resistencia a la resiliencia. Master in Landscape Architecture (MAP), UPC, Barcelona Spain. May 2016

doxiadis+. Landscapes of Cohabitation. Antiparos Island. Contractor OLIAROS S.A. 2000-2007

doxiadis+. Assessment and Strategies for the Landscape of Pylos. Contractor TEMES S.A. 2008

doxiadis+. Public beach and ecological park design in Varkiza. 2008-2009

Gkolemi Chrysi. Memorias Vivas. Del monumento al paisaje cultural: El ejemplo de Kampos Chios. Master Thesis. Master in Landscape Architecture (MAP), UPC, Barcelona Spain. December 2016

KRITIAS S.A., Doxiadis Thomas. Developing an Action Plan to Promote Special Tourism Destinations. Greek Ministry of Tourism Development. 2007

5.2. Articles - Dissertations

Corner James. “Eidetic Operations and New Landscapes” The landscape Imagination. Collected Essays of James Corner 1990-2010. eds. James Corner and Alison Bick Hirsh. Princeton Architectural Press. New York

Doxiadis Thomas, Liveri Dionysia. “Symbiosis: integrating tourism and Mediterranean landscapes” Journal of Place Management and Development vol. 6 No. 3. 2013 pp. 240-255

Doxiadis Thomas, Liveri Dionysia. “Place, Landscape, Identity and Branding” Place Marketing and Branding. International Experience and Greek Reality. eds. Alexios Defner, Nikolas Karahalis. University Editions of Thessaly. 2012 pp. 453-473

Sabaté Bel Joaquin. “Paisajes Culturales. El patrimonio como recurso básico para un nuevo modelo de desarrollo”. Urban vol. 9. 2004

Sauer Carl. The Morphology of Landscape. Doctoral Dissertation. University of California. Publications in Geography 2. 1925

5.3. Websites

LIFO. “The 43 most beautiful posters of EOT”. http://www.lifo.gr/team/lola/50359

Nota Legal
Créditos
Suscripción
Directora: María A. Leboreiro Amaro, Dra. Arquitecto. Profesora Titular de la E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Madrid
Consejo de redacción: Miquel Adriá, director de la revista Arquine
Carmen Andrés Mateo, Arquitecta. Profesora Asociada de la E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Madrid
José Mª Ezquiaga Dominguez. Dr. Arquitecto. Profesor Titular de la E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Madrid
José Fariña Tojo. Dr. Arquitecto. Catedrático de la E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Madrid
Fernando Fernández Alonso. Arquitecto. Profesor Asociado de la E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Madrid
Josep Mª Llop Torne. Arquitecto. Profesor en la Facultad de Geografía de la Universidad de Lleida
Javier Ruiz Sánchez. Dr. Arquitecto. Profesor Titular de la E.T.S. de Arquitectura de Madrid
Secretaría: Llanos Masiá
Edita: planur-e
Avda. Valdemarin, 68
28023 Madrid
Traducción: planur-e
ISSN: 2340-8235
Copyright: (2013): planur-e
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Planur-e: www.planur-e.es es una revista digital editada en España en materias de territorio, urbanismo, sostenibilidad, paisaje y diseño urbano. Nació con el objetivo de exponer buenas prácticas dando voz a los profesionales, planteando que sean los propios autores de los trabajos quienes los presenten. Se colabora así a su difusión, al tiempo que se ofrece, a aquellos que se aproximan al proyecto, la oportunidad de ver otras formas de trabajar y contrastar sus propias reflexiones y propuestas. Planur-e por sus características pretende llenar un hueco, dada la escasez de publicaciones en estas materias. Alcanza en este momento su número diez, con un planteamiento monográfico y da, al tiempo, en su Miscelánea cabida a múltiples temas. Cuenta ya con un número importante artículos alrededor de 150, hasta el momento, y con autores de muy distintos países, lo que enriquece su tarea de divulgación.

Información General
En cumplimiento de lo dispuesto en el artículo 10 de la Ley 34/2002, de 11 de Julio, de Servicios de la Sociedad de la Información y Comercio Electrónico (LSSICE), ponemos a su disposición la “información general”, que comprende los datos identificativos de la entidad titular de este sitio web:
Titular: planur-e
Dirección: Avda. Valdemarín, 68-28023 Madrid
Lugar de edición: Madrid

Nota Legal
Los trabajos firmados expresan únicamente la opinión de sus autores así como la documentación gráfica, y son de su exclusiva responsabilidad, a todos los efectos legales y no reflejan los criterios que pueda tener el equipo editorial. Ninguna parte de esta publicación puede reproducirse o transmitirse en ninguna forma sin autorización escrita por parte de la editorial. Aquellas imágenes en las que no se ha podido identificar el propietario de los derechos, se entiende que son de libre uso. En caso de identificar alguna imagen como propia, por favor póngase en contacto con planur-e.
Legal Notice
The signed works only express the opinion of their authors and also the graphic documentation, and are their sole responsibility, for all legal purposes, and do not reflect the criteria that the editorial team may have. No part of this publication may be reproduced or transmitted in any form without the written consent of the publisher. It is understood that those images for which it was not possible to identify the holder of the rights are free to be used. In the event you identify an image as your own, please contact planur-e.
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 Información Personal

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 Protección de Datos
planur-e te informa de que los datos personales que nos proporciones serán incorporados en el fichero “Atención al Consumidor” del que somos responsables, al objeto de gestionar las solicitudes de información, reclamaciones, consultas realizadas ante el departamento de atención al consumidor. Mediante el envío del presente formulario, prestas consentimiento expreso al tratamiento automatizado y documental de tus datos, en los términos de la Ley Orgánica 15/1999, de 13 de diciembre (LOPD) y el Real Decreto 1720/2007 de 21 de diciembre.
Te agradeceremos nos comuniques cualquier cambio o modificación en los datos que nos ha proporcionado con el fin de que éstos respondan con veracidad y exactitud a la realidad. Asimismo, te informamos de que puedes ejercitar los derechos de acceso, rectificación, cancelación y oposición mediante carta dirigida a planur-e, o bien, mediante correo electrónico a: planur-e@planur-e.es
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